Film: Festveranstaltung zur Eröffnung der HV A-Schule in Gosen, ca. The Stasi motto was Schild und Schwert der Partei (Shield and Sword of the Party), referring to the ruling Socialist Unity Party of Germany (Sozialistische Einheitspartei Deutschlands, SED) and also echoing a theme of the KGB, the Soviet counterpart and close partner, with respect to its own ruling party, the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU). [9] Its Main Directorate for Reconnaissance (Hauptverwaltung Aufklärung) was responsible both for espionage and for conducting covert operations in foreign countries. During his trial, he went through cancer treatment. History of the Records, Gedenkstätte Berlin-Hohenschönhausen. An extensive restoration of the site began in December 2018. [107], This article is about the secret police of East Germany. A high-profile example of this was peace activist Vera Lengsfeld, whose husband, Knud Wollenberger, was a Stasi informant.[29]. Sehnsucht Natur: Ökologisierung des Denkens (2009). Vor 30 Jahren endete die Geschichte der Stasi. In 1992, following a declassification ruling by the German government, the Stasi files were opened, leading people to look for their files. Im Zuge der Observation verändert sich das Leben des zuständigen Hauptmanns für immer. By at least one estimate, the Stasi maintained greater surveillance over its own people than any secret police force in history. Some also believed that politicians involved with the Stasi should be investigated. University graduates who had completed their military service did not need to take these tests and exams. Die Forscherin weiter: „Für die Stasi war von besonderem Interesse, wie die DDR dargestellt wurde und ob es nötig war, medial durch Diffamierungen des ‚Tatort‘ gegenzusteuern. From 1954 it was mainly used for women prisoners. [73], During the Peaceful Revolution of 1989, Stasi offices and prisons throughout the country were occupied by citizens, but not before the Stasi destroyed a number of documents (approximately 5%)[74] consisting of, by one calculation, 1 billion sheets of paper. The main purpose was to control the society. Because he was nearing death, Honecker was allowed to spend his final time in freedom. Januar 1990 in Berlin. Hier sollte ohne jede Hemmung besonders viel Ruhm eingeheimst werden. The candidates would then have to be recommended by their military unit political officers and Stasi agents, the local chiefs of the District (Bezirk) Stasi and Volkspolizei office, of the district in which they were permanently resident, and the District Secretary of the SED. [47] On 5 December 1989, the Stasi Headquarters in Potsdam and the Lindenstrasse Prison were occupied by protesters. In 1957, Markus Wolf became head of the Hauptverwaltung Aufklärung (HVA) (Main Reconnaissance Administration), the foreign intelligence section of the Stasi. West Germany asked for their return and received some in April 2000. Neo-Nazism: a threat to Europe? Considering this, East Germany was a very modern dictatorship. The motto of the Ministry for State Security was that it was the “Sword and Shield of the Party”, the defence of the ideals and the attack against its enemies. The building was also the district offices of the Stasi administration. One great advantage of the harassment perpetrated under Zersetzung was that its subtle nature meant that it was able to be plausibly denied. The Stasi prison and offices were occupied by local citizens on 5 December 1989, during a wave of such takeovers across the country. [71] Pacepa has noted that what happened in Russia and how KGB Colonel Vladimir Putin took over Russia resembles these plans. Erich Mielke was the Stasi's longest-serving chief, in power for 32 of the 40 years of the GDR's existence. ... Bundespolitiker, die Kritik an der DDR übten, waren ein besonderes Ziel von DDR-Propaganda und Stasi. Their secrecy was their strength, so let us talk you through a few of the methods in which they exerted their control over life in East Germany. The Stasi Records Agency (Stasi-Unterlagen-Behörde) is the organisation that administers the archives of Ministry of State Security (Stasi) of the former German Democratic Republic (East Germany). His slow descent into obsession, the tedious scrutiny with which he follows the pair around and the inevitable meeting of Wiesler’s professional spying and personal fixations is beautifully played out, creating an essence of what the Stasi meant to the East German people. Former high-ranking officers and employees of the Stasi, including the last Stasi director, Wolfgang Schwanitz, make up the majority of the organization's members, and it receives support from the German Communist Party, among others. They were tasked with maintaining political support for the East German regime and for identifying perceived enemies of the state. Between 1952 and 1989 over 2,800 people were held in the prison on political grounds. The memorial site and museum was founded in December 1990. Je mehr er dabei allerdings in das Leben der anderen eindringt, desto mehr wird ihm sein eigenes trostloses Leben bewusst. If one was looking for a cipher with which to decode the totality of the Stasi, The Lives of Others might well be the perfect option. [87], Gedenkstätte Bautzner Straße Dresden [de] (The Bautzner Strasse Memorial in Dresden) - A Stasi remand prison and the Stasi's regional head office in Dresden. Spur in die Nacht, Spielfilm, DDR 1957. The Stasi held this status until November 1955, when it was restored to a ministry. Gedenk- und Dokumentationsstätte „Opfer politischer Gewaltherrschaft“. Stasi im Film. Am 5. The Stasi perfected the technique of psychological harassment of perceived enemies known as Zersetzung (pronounced [ʦɛɐ̯ˈzɛtsʊŋ]) – a term borrowed from chemistry which literally means "decomposition". The Stasi was founded on 8 February 1950. Tactics employed under Zersetzung generally involved the disruption of the victim's private or family life. Moreover, high-ranking Stasi officers continued their post-GDR careers in management positions in Schlaff's group of companies. [101], Former Stasi agent Matthias Warnig (codename "Arthur") is currently the head of Nord Stream. Ausgezeichnet mit dem Oscar für den besten nicht-englischsprachigen Film. Tiny holes were drilled in apartment and hotel room walls through which Stasi agents filmed citizens with special video cameras. The Stern magazine noted that KGB officer (and future Russian President) Vladimir Putin worked with his Stasi colleagues in Dresden in 1989. Instead, there was the constricting arms of the Stasi, the secret police and intelligence agency combined into one that was at the heart of life in the communist sector. Part of the prison, built 1842, was used by the Stasi from 1950 until 1989, during with time over 9,000 political prisoners were held in the prison. Es galt als das "Schild und Schwert" der SED(Sozialistische Einheitspartei Deutschlands). Die Stasi war der Geheimdienst der DDR und zuständig sowohl für das Inland (also die DDR) als auch für das Ausland. [citation needed] They felt that the information in the files would lead to negative feelings about former Stasi members, and, in turn, cause violence. Along with the decision to keep the files in a central location in the East, they also decided who could see and use the files, allowing people to see their own files. Regular commissioned Stasi officers were recruited from conscripts who had been honourably discharged from their 18 months' compulsory military service, had been members of the SED, had had a high level of participation in the Party's youth wing's activities and had been Stasi informers during their service in the Military. Pastor Rainer Eppelmann, who became Minister of Defense and Disarmament after March 1990, felt that new political freedoms for former Stasi members would be jeopardized by acts of revenge. The Stasi held and interrogated between 12,000 and 15,000 people during the time they used the prison. Ein Film, der den Besuchern die Machenschaften der Stasi vor Augen führte, wird schon nicht mehr gezeigt. Reassembling the destroyed files has been relatively easy due to the number of archives and the failure of shredding machines (in some cases "shredding" meant tearing paper in two by hand and documents could be recovered easily). The investigations concluded that "Schlaff's empire of companies played a crucial role" in the Stasi attempts to secure the financial future of Stasi agents and keep the intelligence network alive. Jeder, der mit ihm bekannt war, galt der Stasi als verdächtig. [31] The Stasi also acted as a proxy for KGB to conduct activities in other Eastern Bloc countries, such as Poland, where the Soviets were despised. Um herauszufinden, ob sie bei der Stasi waren oder nicht, und sie gegebenenfalls zu rehabilitieren. The line between the state and the individual blurred, completely. Mehrere Zeitzeugen kommen zu Wort. This was important given that the GDR was trying to improve its international standing during the 1970s and 80s, especially in conjunction with the Ostpolitik of West German Chancellor Willy Brandt massively improving relations between the two German states. Under its long-time head Markus Wolf, this directorate gained a reputation as one of the most effective intelligence agencies of the Cold War. Spies reported every relative or friend who stayed the night at another's apartment. Stasi experts helped the President of Ghana, The Stasi sent agents to the West as sleeper agents. Certain functions of the AfNS reasonably related to law enforcement were handed over to the GDR Ministry of Internal Affairs. The Minister of State Security simultaneously became a State Secretary of State Security. Less mentally and academically endowed candidates were made ordinary technicians and attended a one-year technology-intensive course for non-commissioned officers. Former Stasi officers continue to be politically active via the Gesellschaft zur Rechtlichen und Humanitären Unterstützung (GRH, Society for Legal and Humanitarian Support). It is a government agency of the Federal Republic of Germany.It was established when the Stasi Records Act came into force on 29 December 1991. This ruling not only gave the media access to the files, but also gave schools access. [30] The number of IMs peaked at around 180,000 in that year, having slowly risen from 20,000 to 30,000 in the early 1950s, and reaching 100,000 for the first time in 1968, in response to Ostpolitik and protests worldwide. [47][73] Initially that meant officers undercover in workplaces and universities, then it meant inside apartment complexes and social organizations like sports clubs and churches. Wir besitzen NICHT das Videomaterial und alle Videos gehören respektvollen Besitzern. Sie kannten sich alle, Spielfilm, DDR 1958. [77] There was a debate about what should happen to the files, whether they should be opened to the people or kept closed. 2020 19 Uhr Die Schule der DDR-Spione. The fate of the files was finally decided under the Unification Treaty between the GDR and West Germany. [71][72] According to Ion Mihai Pacepa, the chief intelligence officer in communist Romania, other communist intelligence services had similar plans. Zersetzung was designed to side-track and "switch off" perceived enemies so that they would lose the will to continue any "inappropriate" activities. United Press International. The prison closed in 1990. Following the June 1953 uprising, the Politbüro decided to downgrade the apparatus to a State Secretariat and incorporate it under the Ministry of Interior under the leadership of Willi Stoph. By the 1970s, the Stasi had decided that the methods of overt persecution that had been employed up to that time, such as arrest and torture, were too crude and obvious. [72] On 12 March 1990, Der Spiegel reported that the Stasi was indeed attempting to implement 0008-6/86. 10. Ulbricht, claiming that the social unrest was fomented by capitalist agents, once ordered Mielke to personally visit one large plant and 'arrest four or five such agents' as an example to the others. The grounds for further surveillance and further repression of dissent was clear, and the Stasi was the tool by which it would be enacted. Im Film wird ihm nach und nach klar, wie viel Schuld er auf sich geladen hat. For Eyes Only, Spielfilm, DDR 1964. Maßgebend für diesen Strategie-Pakt war niemand anderer als Stasi-Chef und spezieller Sportfan Erich Mielke. [28] Informants were made to feel important, given material or social incentives, and were imbued with a sense of adventure, and only around 7.7%, according to official figures, were coerced into cooperating. ", Operation INFEKTION - Soviet Bloc Intelligence and Its AIDS Disinformation Campaign, "Stasi Files Implicate KGB in Pope Shooting", The Kremlin's Killing Ways—A long tradition continues, "Stasi Aid and the Modernization of the Vietnamese Secret Police", "Piecing Together the Dark Legacy of East Germany's Secret Police", "Germans piece together millions of lives spied on by Stasi", Stasi Records Agency. The museum and memorial site was opened to the public in 1994. [105], Behind the scenes, the GRH also lobbies people and institutions promoting opposing viewpoints. Die Prostitution war in der DDR verboten. [75], With the fall of the GDR the Stasi was dissolved. He wanted to know in advance what people were thinking and planning. In 1986, Wolf retired and was succeeded by Werner Grossmann. A really good movie that shows the true face and the realities of Socialism in Germany, it was much better than its now.. Christian Halbrock: Stasi-Stadt – Die MfS-Zentrale in Berlin-Lichtenberg – Ein historischer Rundgang. The Stasi ordered a campaign in which cemeteries and other Jewish sites in West Germany were smeared with swastikas and other Nazi symbols. GDR Execution site - The execution site at Alfred-Kästner-Straße in south Leipzig, was the central site in East Germany where the death penalty was carried out from 1960 until 1981. Der Propaganda-Film des MfS zeigt die Arbeit der Stasi-Mitarbeiter an den verschiedenen Grenzübergangsstellen zur BRD, West-Berlin, CSSR und Polen im Reise-, Touristen- und Güterverkehr. Da sich die DDR gegenüber dem Klassenfeind als moralisch überlegen sah, hätte es Ausbeutung von Frauen so nicht geben dürfen. Egal wie. As part of this decision, the Ministerrat originally called for the evolution of the AfNS into two separate organizations: a new foreign intelligence service (Nachrichtendienst der DDR) and an "Office for the Protection of the Constitution of the GDR" (Verfassungsschutz der DDR), along the lines of the West German Bundesamt für Verfassungsschutz, however, the public reaction was extremely negative, and under pressure from the "Round Table" (Runder Tisch), the government dropped the creation of the Verfassungsschutz der DDR and directed the immediate dissolution of the AfNS on 13 January 1990. History, The Bautzner Straße Memorial in Dresden website, Frankfurt (Oder) baut sein altes Gefängnis zum Kulturzentrum um / Gedenkstättenbeirat entsetzt Der einstige Hinrichtungsraum wird ein Café, Museum Viadrina. Eigentlich! One director to another: artist Amie Siegel appears in her film DDR/DDR on Stasi director Erich Mielke’s daybed. ... 1985. The specialized divisions at the district departments were subordinated to the specialized division in the central apparatus and the whole line was under the direct command and control of the high-ranking Stasi officer in charge of the mission. In 1995, the BStU began reassembling the shredded documents; 13 years later, the three dozen archivists commissioned to the projects had reassembled only 327 bags; they are now using computer-assisted data recovery to reassemble the remaining 16,000 bags – estimated at 45 million pages. In teilweise sehr bedrückenden Aussagen berichten sie von ihren Erlebnissen, die sie als Andersdenkende in der DDR machen mus… "Das Leben der Anderen" - erst ein Film, dann darüber eine Ausstellung: Die Stasi ist fast immer ein zentrales Motiv in Filmen über die DDR. It calls for the closure of the Berlin-Hohenschönhausen Memorial and can be a vocal presence at memorial services and public events. Preserving records. Mielke was sentenced to six years prison for the murder of two policemen in 1931. In seiner Dokumentation über die "Prostitution in der DDR" steigt Autor Axel Nixdorf hinab in eine Schattenwelt aus Sozialismus, Stasi und Sex. On 8 December 1989, GDR Prime Minister Hans Modrow directed the dissolution of the AfNS, which was confirmed by a decision of the Ministerrat on 14 December 1989. Today the group provides an alternative if somewhat utopian voice in the public debate on the GDR legacy. The Stasi in 1972 made plans to assist the, In 1975, the Stasi recorded a conversation between senior West German CDU politicians. Menu. It was converted into a block of flats in 1933 before being confiscated by the Soviet army in 1945. Blumenau, Bernhard. The building contained vast records of personal files, many of which would form important evidence in convicting those who had committed crimes for the Stasi. Among the high-profile individuals who were arrested and tried were Erich Mielke, Third Minister of State Security of the GDR, and Erich Honecker, head of state for the GDR. [27] A large number of Stasi informants were tram conductors, janitors, doctors, nurses and teachers. Between 1950 and 1958 the Stasi shared another prison with the civil police. With the German reunification on 3 October 1990, a new government agency was founded called the Federal Commissioner for the Records of the State Security Service of the former German Democratic Republic (German: Der Bundesbeauftragte für die Unterlagen des Staatssicherheitsdienstes der ehemaligen Deutschen Demokratischen Republik), officially abbreviated "BStU". From January 1990 the building was used as offices for various citizens initiatives and new political groups, such as the Neue Forum. Other practices included property damage, sabotage of cars, purposely incorrect medical treatment, smear campaigns including sending falsified compromising photos or documents to the victim's family, denunciation, provocation, psychological warfare, psychological subversion, wiretapping, bugging, mysterious phone calls or unnecessary deliveries, even including sending a vibrator to a target's wife. Im Film "Ein Volk unter Verdacht" spricht die junge Reporterin Malin Büttner mit dem BStU-Historiker Dr. Ilko-Sascha Kowalczuk über grundlegende Fragen zum Ministerium für Staatssicherheit. It was used as a prison by the Soviet occupying forces from 1945 to 1953, and from 1953 to 1989 by the Stasi. At the local level the Stasi had Area Precincts for State Security (Bezirksverwaltungen für Staatssicherheit - one each for the 227 cities and municipal districts and the 11 city boroughs (Stadtbezirken) of East Berlin). Once inside, specific targets of the protesters' anger were portraits of Erich Honecker and Erich Mielke which were trampled on or burnt. Die DDR im Blick der Stasi 1977. Would it not be easierIn that case for the governmentTo dissolve the peopleAnd elect another? By comparison, the Gestapo deployed one secret policeman per 2,000 people. Zusammen besuchen sie wichtige historische Orte wie das MfS-Untersuchungsgefängnis in Potsdam oder den Dienstsitz von Erich Mielke, der über 30 Jahre Minister für Staatssicherheit in der DDR war. A journalist has from DDR is now the anchorman of one of the major television channels. Indeed, the Stasi was seen as a localized extension of the KGB, the Soviet Security Service that had arrived when the Russians had liberated Berlin from the Nazis in 1945. The irony of workers striking and marching – the tools of the political left – against an ostensibly leftist government was not lost on Bertolt Brecht, a prominent poet, playwright and communist, who penned a poem called “, Had leaflets distributed in the Stalinallee, Had forfeited the confidence of the government, By redoubled efforts. Oldenbourg, München 2001, Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU), Main Directorate for External Intelligence, Federal Commissioner for the Stasi Records, Learn how and when to remove this template message, Federal Commissioner for the Records of the State Security Service of the former German Democratic Republic, Memorial and Education Centre Andreasstrasse, Remembrance and Documentation Centre for "Victims of political tyranny", Documentation Centre and Memorial site, former Stasi remand prison, Rostock, Gesellschaft zur Rechtlichen und Humanitären Unterstützung, John Roper, Baron Roper of Thorney Island, Eternal Return: Berlin Journal, 1989–2009 - jstor, No remorse from Stasi as Berlin marks fall of Wall, Angela Merkel 'turned down' job from Stasi, 'Puzzlers' reassemble shredded Stasi files, bit by bit, East Germany's inescapable Hohenschönhausen prison, "Unholy Alliance: The Connection between the East German Stasi and the Right-Wing Terrorist Odfried Hepp", "East Germany - Agencies of the Ministry of State Security", "Political prisoners in the German Democratic Republic", "Video Games in East Germany: The Stasi Played Along", Hubertus Knabe: The dark secrets of a surveillance state, A brave woman seeks justice and historical recognition for past wrongs, THE FOREIGN INTELLIGENCE-GATHERING OF THE MfS' HAUPTVERWALTUNG AUFKLÄRUNG, "Gunter Guillaume, 68, Is Dead; Spy Caused Willy Brandt's Fall", "The Schlaff Saga / Laundered funds & 'business' ties to the Stasi", Olympiakos soccer chief was 'spy for Stasi', E. Germany Ran Antisemitic Campaign in West in '60s, The Truth about the Gunshot that Changed Germany, "East German Stasi Spy Killed Protester, Ohnesorg, in 1967", "Karl-Heinz Kurras: Erschoss er Benno Ohnesorg? Each government that had ruled Germany – and indeed, most other countries too – attempted to control the political actions of the populus and to limit perceived threats to the stability of the nation. Those who opposed opening the files cited privacy as a reason. DDR (East Germany) in movies. Ihr halfen viele Menschen, die bereitwillig über andere "petzten". Zwei Jahre zuvor hatte Fechner, seit der Gründung der DDR 1949 Minister, noch die Richter beaufsichtigt, die ihn später hinter Gitter brachten.