They also filmed the camp, including the crematoria, with the camera pointedly focusing on the J.A. Frankfurt/New York: Campus Verlag. He founded the firm against the advice of his sons, although the younger two sons, Julius and Ludwig, joined him. (20 cm, 16 cm, 28 cm), Edelstahl/schwarz. [4], Kurt Prüfer (1891–1952), a senior engineer and the main designer of the ovens, was initially arrested by the American CIC on 30 May 1945 and interrogated. Two further legal proceedings followed in 1962 but neither resulted in a formal charge. The SS were holding 125,000 Soviet prisoners of war in Auschwitz II, and it was calculated that with the use of the new ovens, they could all be killed and disposed of in about four months. The Nazi party first gained seats in the German parliament in 1928. [11], In addition to making ovens for Buchenwald, Auschwitz and Dachau, Topf & Söhne also supplied a transportable double-muffle oven and a stationary double-muffle oven for Mauthausen-Gusen, a triple-muffle oven at Groß-Rosen and a four-muffle oven at Mogilev ghetto. They were banned from the company site, due to a rift with their mother, who would not speak to them, and because of political problems. It was refused in 1992, because property confiscated during the Soviet occupation period could not be claimed. [4], In 1929, Ernst was employed at Topf & Söhne, and in 1931 Ludwig also joined the firm. The Americans forced the citizens of nearby Weimar to walk through the camp to witness what had been going on. Des témoignages oculaires de membres du 'Sonderkommando', qui étaient forcés de travailler dans les crématoires, attestent du déroulement des massacres et de la destruction des cadavres. Puis elle emporte le "marché du siècle" consistant à équiper les crématoires II à V à Auschwitz-Birkenau[2]. En même temps, ils confirment l'importance qu'a eue Topf & Fils pour le perfectionnement de l'extermination industrialisée. Meyerbeer, Karl; Späth, Pascal (eds) (2012), Besetztes Haus Erfurt in Aktion: Widerstand gegen Räumung, Die Räumung des Besetzten Hauses in Erfurt am 16.04.2009, Forced labour under German rule during World War II, The engineers of the "final solution". A. Topf und Söhne con hoteles de Skyscanner. Après la guerre, il se suicida. Elle était clairement conçue pour le long terme et susceptible de se développer, et on s'en rendait bien compte chez Topf & Fils. Cet article est copié avec permission du catalogue de l'exposition de Malignes, After the truth about the concentration camps was exposed, Topf & Söhne's involvement was quite widely known. They had two children. A further four, single-muffle ovens were built at Dachau by Topf & Söhne's competitor H. on Holocaust related topics. Kaum etwas in den Ruinen erinnert an die schreck­liche Bedeutung, die Überlebende des Holocaust bis heute mit dem Namen dieser Firma verbinden: Topf & Söhne, im Jahr 1878 als Spezialbetrieb für Feuerungs- und Mälzereianlagen in Erfurt gegründet, produzierte einen großen Teil der Krematorien für die nationalsozialistischen Vernichtungslager. [1], After leaving school, Ludwig studied machine engineering at the Technische Hochschule Hannover, now the University of Hannover. [1], In March 1948 the Spruchkammer in Wiesbaden, where Topf had moved to, took over his files. Les installations Topf & Fils représentaient une avancée considérable pour les crémations lors de funérailles religieuses. Pourtant, ils ne tirèrent pas de bénéfice de leurs contrats avec la SS, qui ne représentaient que 3 % de leur chiffre d'affaires. Elsa Topf was also estranged from her daughter, whose marriage she disapproved of. Bodies were often pushed in four, five or even six at once. A. Topf & Söhne (gegründet 1878, bis zum Konkurs 1994 als EMS - Erfurter Mälzerei- und Speicherbau tätig) ist ein prominentes Beispiel für die Mittäterschaft der Industrie bei der Vernichtung der europäischen Juden. J.A. [4], On 1 March 1946 the firm was given a large contract for malting and brewing equipment by the reparations department of the Soviet military, however a few days later, four engineers of the firm were arrested. [1], At its peak Topf & Söhne was the largest company of its type in the world. [13][14], In early 1943, the Topf & Söhne fitter Heinrich Messing installed exhaust fans in the Auschwitz II crematoria and also in the gas chambers. Topf moved the company to Mainz in 1954. This was a four-storey oven designed for Auschwitz II. Au début du XXe siècle, elle était déjà l'un des plus grands fabricants mondiaux d'installations de chaufferies industrielles pour brasseries. It is the only memorial of its type relating to a civilian company's collaboration in the Holocaust. The brothers, like their father, did have many good relationships with Jewish friends, neighbours and business contacts. [1], On 26 October 1942, the engineer Fritz Sander, Prüfer's manager, applied for a patent for what he called a "continuous operation corpse incineration oven for mass use". [4], The company began manufacturing incinerators for burning municipal waste and, from 1914, crematoria for local authorities, due to the increasing acceptability of cremation as a means of body disposal. Cerca e confronta hotel vicino a J.A. 1878 wurde von Johann Andreas Topf, der Vater von Ludwig und Ernst-Wolfgang Topf, der beiden namentlich bekannten Geschäftsführer der Firma zur NS-Zeit, in Erfurt eine Bierbrauerei gegründet. They were then permitted to return and were appointed joint managers, with Ludwig as the technical manager, and Ernst as the business manager. Topf & Söhne Die Erfurter Firma J. Pour ce faire, il leur fallut observer les premiers massacres et incinérations dans les crématoires. Plus miljontals hotell, resorter, lägenheter och vandrarhem över hela världen. Topf died in 1979. The company's crematoria department was closed in 1955 and in 1957 it stopped production of all forms of combustion machinery and was renamed VEB Erfurter Mälzerei- und Speicherbau (VEB EMS), (Erfurt Oasthouse and Granary Construction). It was made a subsidiary of VVB NAGEMA, a group of East German state-owned engineering companies. This bland valediction (complimentary close) was often used at the end of letters Topf & Söhne sent to the SS, in which details of orders for concentration camp ovens were discussed.[30]. Auch unbequemer. From 1942 until spring 1944 about 1000 people per day were transported to Auschwitz, although not all of them were killed. In October 1941, the SS placed an order for five three-muffle ovens for the new Auschwitz-Birkenau extermination camp (Auschwitz II), where it was initially estimated that over 1000 people per day would die. La dernière modification de cette page a été faite le 22 juillet 2020 à 16:11. [18][19], In April 1945, Erfurt and Buchenwald were liberated by the US Army. That was the highest sentence that could be given without having a full trial. April 2001 besetzten AntifaschistInnen einen Teil des ehemaligen Topf und Söhne Geländes in Erfurt. The two older brothers also joined the company in the late 1880s, but they both died by the mid-1890s; Gustav, aged 40 and Albert, aged 39. En pratique : Quelles sources sont attendues ? At least 620 foreigners were forced to work for the company. Sans Topf, les SS n'auraient jamais pu mettre en place un tel systèmes d'élimination des humains[4]. Unterstützt wird die Aktion von der Grünen Jugend, der DGB-Jugend, den Jusos, dem Jugendbüro RedRoXX, der Offenen Arbeit und anderen, wie eine Sprecherin mitteilte. However, his business never did well. J. Topf & Söhne ist ein authentischer Ort der Mittäterschaft der Industrie am Holocaust. Johannes Topf died in 1891, and in 1904 Julius Topf stepped down to become a sleeping partner due to ill health, leaving Ludwig managing it on his own. [12], Topf & Söhne engineers and other staff visited the concentration camps many times, not only to install and repair equipment, but also to observe processes to help make them more efficient. By 1885 J.A. "Topf & Söhne", wie die Firma nach dem Tod des Gründers hieß, setzte seit 1914 auch auf einen neuen Trend - die Einäscherung. Cependant les relations avec la SS étaient houleuses. Encuentra millones de habitaciones en hoteles, resorts y hostales de todo el mundo. Und so wird es wohl am Hirnzigenberg noch eine ganze Weile so ruhig bleiben. He was held in custody and interrogated for two or three weeks and then let go. C'est dans les années 1930 que Ludwig et Ernst Wolfgang Topf commencèrent à travailler dans l'entreprise créée par leur grand-père. Crematorium IV was out of use from May 1943, after only two months of service, because it developed cracks. From October 1945 he went to live in the town of Gudensberg, in the district Fritzlar-Homberg, in the American zone, where his niece, the daughter of his sister Hanna, was working for the American military administration. [1], Auschwitz and Auschwitz-Birkenau concentration camps were liberated by the Red Army on the 26 and 27 January 1945. … Ansehen Topf & Söhne logo and manufacturer's name plate attached to the ovens. Topf & Fils (J.A. La direction de l'entreprise, les ingénieurs et les monteurs non seulement livrèrent les fours crématoires pour faire disparaître les personnes assassinées. (mz) Erinnerungsort Topf & Söhne, Sorbenweg 7, Erfurt, Di-So 10-18 Uhr Das Haus im Internet: Topf & Söhne, hoping to capitalise on its good reputation prior to World War II. It is also thought that they supplied transportable ovens to at least one of the Nazi euthanasia institutions, in which a total of over 70,000 physically and mentally disabled people were murdered in 1940 and 1941. J.A. [20], At Buchenwald, liberated on 11 April, the crematoria ovens remained intact. There was further bad publicity when the book Macht ohne Moral ('Power without Morals') was published in 1957. In an interview given in 2005, his daughter Hildegard who was 16 in 1943, said she would never forget him saying on his return, "If what I have seen comes out, we will all be wading up to our knees in blood". Topf und Söhne con Skyscanner Hotel. [3], As Ernst Topf was now in western Germany and his brother Ludwig was dead, Topf & Söhne was declared an "ownerless company" and in 1946 it was taken over by the state and renamed "Topfwerke Erfurt VEB". Topf's wife Erika, aged 52, died in April 1963. However, for appearances sake, they were persuaded to join the Nazi party, in April 1933. From 1941, Topf & Söhne used forced labour in its factory, as did many other German firms in the Nazi period. Plus miliony pokojów w hotelach, kurortach, apartamentowcach i schroniskach na całym świecie. It was handed over on 3 July 1945. Topf & Söhne – Die Ofenbauer von Auschwitz“ von Annegret Schüle (Wallstein-Verlag Göttingen. [4], Kurt Prüfer, the head of Topf & Söhne's small crematoria department, was the main oven designer. [1], It is now infamous as the largest of 12 companies that designed and built crematoria ovens for concentration and extermination camps during the Holocaust, planned and carried out by the Nazi regime from 1935 to 1945. In the 1940s, less than 2% of its total business came from its concentration camp contracts. Topf und Söhne) est une société allemande spécialisée en installations de chauffage qui fut créée en 1878 à Erfurt. Même si ces fours particuliers ne représentaient qu'une petite activité annexe pour la société, celle-ci parvint rapidement à conquérir une place de leader sur le marché des fours crématoires en Allemagne. Grâce à des contrats lucratifs pour un programme de construction d'entrepôts pour l'armée, ils purent consolider leur entreprise qui avait connu des revers à la suite de la crise économique mondiale. The occupation was known throughout Germany simply as "Das Besetzte Haus" (the occupied house). A. Topf und Söhne mit Skyscanner-Hotels. Topf und Söhne ging in 1940 een samenwerkingsverband aan met het Reichssicherheitshauptamt (RSHA), dat het beheer over de concentratiekampen had. Barracks that could accommodate 52 Zwangsarbeiter were built on the Topf & Söhne factory site. Abuse is known to have occurred; the camp manager, Wilhelm Buchröder, a Nazi, was dismissed in 1944 by Ernst Topf for beating Zwangsarbeiter, although it is reported that his successor also mistreated them. Mais les gravats restés là témoignaient du génocide. The museum documents the history of Topf & Söhne and its collaboration with the Nazi regime using material from the company's archives, oral history and items found at the Buchenwald concentration camp site. Topf & Kopf Raucherbedarf GmbH A-2604 Theresienfeld, Flugfeldstrasse 3/2 Tel:+43 2622 71396 Topf & Söhne – Die Ofenbauer von Auschwitz“ der Stiftung Gedenkstätten Buchenwald und Mittelbau-Dora in Verbindung mit dem Jüdischen Museum Berlin und dem Staatlichen Museum Auschwitz. [4], He had four sons: Gustav (1853–1893); Albert (1857–1896); Max Julius Ernst, known as Julius (1859–1914) and Wilhelm Louis, known as Ludwig, (1863–1914). En 1941, Ludwig Topf parvint à se soustraire à son service militaire en affirmant qu'il était indispensable pour le projet Auschwitz. [20], On 27 April 1945, Ludwig Topf organised a meeting with company's works council at which it was agreed that the line to be taken with investigators was that workers and management knew that the ovens were delivered to concentration camps, but that they did not know the details of what was going on. Prüfer and Sander, who disliked each other and competed with one another, disagreed about how well the device would work in practice. [4], Ludwig and Else Topf had three children: Johanna, known as Hanna, (1902–? A 'muffle' is the incineration chamber where the body is put. It was privatised in 1993 after German reunification and it went bankrupt in 1996. They ran social and cultural projects, and organised events and guided tours which drew attention to the history of Topf & Söhne during the Nazi period, which had been largely forgotten. " Es sind 4 Jahre vergangen. En tant que témoins du génocide, les détenus du camp de concentration tentèrent de laisser des témoignages avant la libération d'Auschwitz. A fifth son died in childhood. La SS fut désignée comme seule coupable. Si vous disposez d'ouvrages ou d'articles de référence ou si vous connaissez des sites web de qualité traitant du thème abordé ici, merci de compléter l'article en donnant les références utiles à sa vérifiabilité et en les liant à la section « Notes et références ». Die Firma Topf & Söhne lieferte die benötigten Verbrennungsöfen und trat damit seinen Dienst als Handlanger des Holocaust an.